Portable Sink – Alternative Solution For Sink Maintenance

The bathroom sink or portable sink can be both functional and fashionable. The kind of care and maintenance you need to do largely depends on the material your sink has. Learn more about portable sinks

Enameled Cast Iron Sinks – These are made of solid cast iron, layered with a deep enamel surface. These sinks are extremely heavy, long lasting and resist almost any type of structural damage and are available in a wide variety of colors.

Never leave acid-based spills or acidic food to sit on the surface of the sink for a long time. Most porcelain iron sinks are not acid resistant and tends to discolor and even etch when exposed to harsh materials like acids for a long time. It may be best to use plastic or perforated mats to protect porcelain sinks from any damage.

Stainless Steel Sinks – Most are manufactured from 18 or 20 gauge steel and are very strong. Some are undercoated with a sound deadening material that reduces noise. A great option if you are looking for an urban, contemporary or modern styled bathroom.

Stainless steel sinks are relatively easy to clean and maintain. However, to prevent scratches, dents and to keep it looking new, you need to do regular maintenance on it. Clean your stainless steel sink with hand dishwashing liquid detergent and water, or a baking soda and water solution. Rinse thoroughly and use a soft cloth or paper towel to polish the surface. Do not use scouring powders or steel wool pads as they will surely scratch your sink. Use rubber or plastic mats to avoid pans and tableware from marking and scratching the surface. You can also add a small amount of vinegar or ammonia to achieve a more polished look.

Solid Surface Materials – Available in a variety of colors and can mimic granite and other high-end stones. They are heat and stain resistant. Though not completely scratch-proof, scratches do buff out easily.

Natural stones are porous so that certain substances may tend to stain your stone sink. Stone sinks also tend to absorb moisture if not properly protected. Because of this, it is best to wipe spills immediately and to avoid the build-up of by-products such as salt, lime, calcium or detergents. Stone sinks must be regularly cleaned using a sponge or a soft cloth with a non-abrasive neutral detergent and warm water, and rinsed thoroughly.

Why Choose Portable Sinks

Portable sinks make excellent personal and business sense for all kinds of scenarios. Hot and cold running water wherever you need it. Portable sinks are self-contained and mobile, and they come with their own water supply either through a refillable tank or via hook-up to a standard faucet and they are perfect for situations that require a temporary solution, for shared usage, or for locations where built-in plumbing just isn’t an option. A portable sink is a self-contained and fully-functional sink that does not require any plumbing or installation as well as being portable. The compact size (of most models) makes them easy to transport in a small truck or van and most models come with safety-lock casters for easy rolling. In fact, that’s the whole key behind portable sinks: they’re self-contained, easy to use and other than filling up the water tank and plugging it in, there’s no installation whatsoever. More importantly, portable sinks are specifically designed to be easy to clean, easy to maintain, and easy to use!

Water Filters: Facts You May Not Know

Water filters that are used in the home are mainly used to remove various metals or chemicals. Examples of substances that can be removed are chlorine or lead. Sometimes the water filters are used to get rid of harmful substances, and at other times they are used to improve the taste or odor of the water.

There are many types of filters that can be used in the home. These include microporous ceramic filters, carbon block resin, metallic alloy filters, granular activated carbon filters, ultra-filtration membranes, distillation systems, and reverse osmosis flters.

Microporous ceramic filters use ceramic to pass the water through. The pores in the ceramic are so small that the unwanted substances are not able to pass through with the water. When this type of filter gets clogged up, you just need to run water through it in the reverse direction to unclog the pores.

Granular activated carbon filters work by passing the water through a type of carbon that filters out the impurities. Carbon filters have to be replaced periodically. They cannot change the acidity of water.

Water distillers work by boiling the water and then catching and condensing the steam back into water. The result should be totally pure water. However, this process does remove the good minerals from the water too.

Reverse osmosis filters use pressure to drive the reverse osmosis process, and the result is very pure water, just like distilled water. It was originally invented in order to create drinking water from salt water, but it works for taking out other substances too. Like distilled water, there will be no minerals left in the water.

There are various points in your home where you can install a water filter. If you want to filter your whole home’s water at once, you can install a whole house water filtration system. A smaller solution would be to install a water filter under your kitchen sink to filter only the water in the kitchen.

Other water filters come built into refrigerators and filter the water that is used to create ice as well as the water that is dispensed in the refrigerator door.

You can get a water pitcher that will filter just a pitcher full of water at a time. You can even get water bottles with a built in filter. This is great for use at work, since you can just add tap water to the bottle and you will be drinking filtered water.

There are numerous health benefits to drinking filtered water. Water filters can remove harmful substances such as lead, chlorine, bacteria, harmful metals, and other toxins. Filtered water often tastes better too, so you drink more of it, which is good for your overall health. Even cooked food can taste better when prepared with filtered water.

Home water filters are cheaper in the long run than continually purchasing bottled water. It saves you the time and effort of carrying home all that water too. And you don’t need to find a place to store the water bottles. Having filtered water always available is definitely very convenient.

Chlorine Resistant Leggings – The Perfect Solution For A Hygienic Swimming Experience

Swimming is not only a sport where you can have fun but also one of the better exercises that keeps your body fit and in shape. But while being in a swimming pool, one should always care for protecting his body against the chlorine which is added in the swimming pool water for the purpose of killing the harmful bacteria. This added chlorine is injurious to human body as it causes skin irritation, asthma and even gall bladder cancer.

The solution to carry on swimming without the concern of any harmful effects of the added chlorine on your body is chlorine resistant leggings, which are added swimsuits that cover your legs. The effects of these chlorine resistant leggings can be easily understood through its popularity among the swimmers. Specially designed for protecting your body against the adverse effects of the chlorinated water, these garments are made up of Lycra and are found in various colours, design and size. Along with these leggings, another chlorine resistant swimsuit is the legged swimwear. These legged swimwears are completely made up of nylon tricot and are very comfortable for swimmers who wish to be for long hours in the water. A wide range of these garments can be easily found in the market at very affordable prices.

The latest invention in the world of swimsuits has been the Muslim swimwear or Burkini. The other swimsuits present in the market never suited the Muslim girls as some of them allowed a large part of skin exposure while the others were not comfortable for swimming. However with the invention of Zanetti’s Muslim swimwear or Burkini there has been a sense of relief among the Muslim girls. These swimsuits allow just the feet, hands and face to be exposed and are quite comfortable with a high chlorine resistant ability.

The Various Types of Water Solutions Being Used in Industries and Chemical Laboratories

There are different kinds of water solutions used intensively in industries and chemical labs today and many companies are providing them for other companies who need them. It so happens that each type of solution may vary in concentration and strength and different industries may demand for different types of such mixtures. Thus, it may be imperative to communicate with your supplier to discuss your specific needs. These chemical solutions would range from reagents in aqueous solutions to indicator solutions, each of which has different uses and different properties.

Perhaps one of the most widely used chemical solutions is buffer solutions. At the same time, they are the most naturally occurring solutions in nature. Did you know that seawater and blood are some of the best examples? Buffers are actually mixtures of a weak acid and its salt or a weak alkaline and its salt. An example is the mixture of acetic acid and sodium acetate. Buffer solutions are vitally important in controlling the pH range of the system where they are present. This pH control is important in many industrial applications that include manufacture of chemicals. In processes involving biochemical reactions, a limited pH range keeps such reactions at normal pace, whereas too much acidity or alkalinity could slow down or stop chemical reactions. Thus, buffer solutions are important in fermentation process and in pH measurement.

Another kind of water solution is indicator solution, also known as acid-base indicators. These are actually solutions of weak acid or weak base and are used to determine whether a solution is alkaline or acid. However, most indicators work only within a particular range of pH. The common indicator solutions include thymol blue, methyl orange, bromthymol blue, phenolphthalein, and bromphenol blue. These solutions are basically used in analytical chemistry when titrations are needed, during which a color change can indicate the alkalinity or acidity.

Standard solutions are another type of laboratory solutions used in titrations. The importance of these solutions comes from their determined concentration which is basically ideal in appropriate measurements of the presence of a substance or solute in a solution. Standard solutions are expressed in their normality or molarity. Substances used include acids like acetic acid, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid in aqueous solution; bases like potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide; and salts like potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and ammonium sulfate. Since the standard solution has a known amount of a substance, this can be used to determine the precise amount of another substance during chemical analysis. For example, if you have a solution of sodium hydroxide whose concentration you need to determine, a standard solution of hydrochloric acid may be used. By computing the amount of HCI needed to neutralize the solution, the amount of NaOH will then be calculated.

Aqueous solutions may also include percentage solutions, which are more comprehensible to people with little knowledge in chemistry than molar solutions. A percentage solution may refer to the proportion of the mass of solute to the mass of solvent. Nevertheless, there may be differences. For instance, percentage may mean volume to volume ratio or, in some cases, mass to volume ratio. However, the use of volume may not yield accurate measurements in thermodynamics, since volume changes with temperature and pressure. In any case, percentage solutions are used to determine the amount of solute present in the solution. This is relevant during chemical analyses and computations.

There are also conductivity standard solutions manufactured by water companies for their own use or for other companies’ utilization. Conductivity standards are important in testing pure water quality, which involves a test to determine the electric conductivity of water. Such conductivity standard solutions contain potassium chloride (KCI). Since the aim of any analytical measurement is accuracy, standardized solutions are deemed necessary in preparation and testing of chemicals.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/3204788

Pure Water Solution

What exactly is a pure liquid solution? This is the term used to refer to water that has been de-ionized or distilled. It is usually used by chemical engineers, chemical analysts, automotive mechanics microbiologists and others.

While there are many more methods of filtering and purifying water like reverse osmosis carbon filtration, UV oxidation among others these two are the ones known to remove everything contained in water even including the beneficial trace minerals needed by the body.

Your local water supply may treat the water before it gets to your house but this does not mean that it is a pure water solution. There is proof that the tap water supplied to homes is still contaminated and needs further filtration to get it to be a pure water solution its not wise to rely on it.

The alternative to buying a filtration and purification system is simply buying pure liquid solutions which are available and help you avoid the tedious task of looking for a suitable pure water solution. As a pure liquid solution contains no inorganic or organic compound it becomes suitable for scientists who need it for doing tissue culture, making solutions and for other lab experiments. Ordinary water contains contaminants that would taint the results from the research. Most of the current water supplies have pathogenic micro organisms that are not safe for human consumption let alone these other operations, you should not use it for your car as it leaves white spots instead use a pure hydro solution.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/4330216

Plastics|SA seminar addresses current economic downturn with energy, water solutions

The Sustainability Council of Plastics|SA and DRA Global Engineering Consultants recently hosted a seminar entitled ‘Preparing for an uncertain future’ in which a panel of sustainability experts presented their thoughts on how companies could remain competitive in the face of the current economic downturn by implementing energy and water solutions.
Plastics SA Energy and Water Seminar speakers
Plastics SA Energy and Water Seminar speakers
According to Jacques Lightfoot, sustainability manager of Plastics|SA, energy and water solutions are of integral importance for the plastics industry. “Resource efficiency is one of our key strategies. By hosting seminars such as these, we are fulfilling our mandate and facilitating an important link between service providers and the plastics industry which needs guidance on how to remain competitive and profitable,” he said.

Seminar speakers

Speakers at the seminar included well known journalist and winner of the SANEA Journalism Award for “special efforts within the field of journalism, to promote greater understanding of energy and its role in sustaining human endeavours”, Chris Yelland, who presented on the topic ‘Making sense of energy in a chaotic environment’. Yelland was followed by Maggie Matumba and Wynand Van Der Merwe of the National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa (NCPC-SA) – a national governmental programme that promotes the implementation of resource efficiency and cleaner production methodologies to assist industry to lower costs through reduced energy, water and materials usage, and waste management.

The final speaker of the day was Miguel Dos Santos of DRA – a multi-disciplinary global engineering group that delivers mining, mineral processing, energy, agriculture, water treatment and infrastructure services from concept to commissioning and comprehensive operations and maintenance services.

Alternative energy sources

“In South Africa we are feeling the strain of ever-increasing energy costs and the uncertainty of supply as the national power grid struggles to meet our energy demands. Businesses have to seriously consider turning to alternative energy sources to mitigate the impact of these factors,” Dos Santos said.

“I am very impressed with the commitment to industrial symbiosis I have seen amongst South African companies,” said Linsey Dyer, DRA’s business development manager. “One of the keys to resource efficiency is allowing companies to use each other’s unused or residual resources, such as materials, energy, water, waste, assets, logistics and expertise. Although still a relatively new concept in South Africa, business leaders here are keen to embrace this concept which results in numerous mutual economic, social and environmental benefits,” she said.

InnovationMonth: Social-TV spotlights stories that inspire hope

Social-TV is an online media channel that showcases company CSI and sustainable development initiatives while highlighting charity organisations that need funding.
Launched two years ago, the news channel also seeks to empower young people with journalism, video, production and social media skills.

We chatted to spokesperson for Social-TV Diane Naidoo-Ngcese to find out what inspired the launch of Social-TV, what the platform’s key goals are, and her take on the CSI space in South Africa.

BizcommunityWho are the masterminds behind Social-TV, and how did the idea to launch such a unique platform come about?

Samm Marshall, seasoned media personality and serial entrepreneur is the brains behind Social-TV. Having worked across sports (Sunrise on e), reality television (Let’s Fix It on e-tv), and current affairs and lifestyle news (SABC Morning Live), Samm identified a gap in the market for ‘good news stories’, and more specifically, a channel or platform which would celebrate the good which many corporates are investing in to deliver positive social impact. In addition, most corporates relegate good news (CSI stories) to annual CSI reports which are only shared with an internal, almost exclusive audience. So, tired of the sales-driven ‘if it bleeds, it leads’ approach to news, he developed a web-based platform called Social-TV which would carry the stories that inspire hope and deliver social change in SA.

BizcommunityWhat are the key goals for the platform?

One short-term goal is that Social-TV becomes more than an information hub, and more of a knowledge-sharing, best-practice sharing platform where corporates and philanthropists are able to identify effective models for CSI and sustainable social change. All too often, success stories are not shared, and there is very little collaboration between and amongst corporates, even if scaling up an idea could deliver far more impact. As a long-term goal, it is intended that corporates would start to engage with each other, and in certain instances, develop public-private partnerships, and implement projects that offer the greatest possible benefit to the community. At Social-TV, we believe that if we want to go fast, corporates can go it alone. But if we want to go far, we need to go together. Collaboration is critical to development.

Social-TV spokesperson Diane Naidoo-Ngcese
Social-TV spokesperson Diane Naidoo-Ngcese
BizcommunityWhat have been some of your achievements over the last two years?

In the past two years we have managed to set our foot in the CSI space. We attended and covered the Trialogue conference this year, and conversed with leaders in the CSI and sustainable development sector. We were the media partner in the recently ended Eskom Small Business Expo at the Ticket Pro Dome, Johannesburg. Our channel, as well as social media platforms, has attracted a lot of companies and NPOs thus bringing the world of CSI into life. In terms of skills development, we have trained two videographers and two journalists.

BizcommunityWhy do you think it’s important to make the public aware of the many CSI initiatives in SA?

There are many reasons why it is important to raise public awareness. For starters, there are still many companies, big businesses whose investments have delivered, and continue to deliver on national priorities, such as education, skills development, job creation, and healthcare. Often companies are not quite aware of where to begin, so sharing information, telling their stories, particularly of partnerships with civil society, NPOs, and NGOs which have been effective. In addition, our country has a growing entrepreneurship and small business economy, and lack of funding is often the biggest hurdle for start-ups to launch their own businesses. Through platforms such as Social-TV, aspirant entrepreneurs can find out more about the requirements for starting out, identifying potential corporate sponsors and also read about success stories. And really, success stories are of paramount importance as the fear of failure can hinder, or even impose dormancy on many great business ideas before they have even started.

BizcommunityWhat is your take on the CSI space in South Africa?

CSI is evolving in South Africa – we are fast moving away from simply throwing money at causes, we are now demanding more bang for our buck in terms of corporate social investment. What this means is that decision-makers are in a way, demanding that their spend delivers tangible returns. They want to see, for example, after buying books for a school, that there are more children passing certain subjects, that more matriculants are coping at university, that they are graduating, that their living standards are improving because of their investment. So the CSI spend is a lot more long-term than it’s been previously – corporates are giving their investments a chance to mature, much in the same way that they would with long-term horizon investment portfolios. The private sector has also recognised that as a society, we cannot wait on government to meet all the needs across education, healthcare, housing, employment – they have a part to play in creating the country their businesses need to thrive in. And they recognise that their active citizenship is critical to growing a sustainable economy – in essence, their investment is about developing the talent pool they will rely on to sustain their business into the future.

BizcommunityWhat are some of the most important areas for corporates to focus on when planning their CSI initiatives?

The key areas are: education, energy, water, food, health and entrepreneurship. There are many, but as a start, education is key. It’s the one tool that has the ability to level the plains of opportunity for all. Then of course, there are critical areas such as the food-water-energy nexus. Our ability to offer energy security for industry is important if we are to grow our economy, and perhaps more importantly, we need to invest in sustainable clean sources of energy. This has a direct impact on water security, which in turn, impacts our food security in the country. In addition, our current healthcare system does not provide for everyone and we need to be more innovative in the way in which we make quality affordable healthcare accessible to all. Then, the issue of unemployment which in many respects necessitates a thriving entrepreneurship economy. Big business continues to shed jobs every quarter and graduates (and those who are still at high school) have few options in terms of finding jobs in the formal, big business environment. The National Development Plan touts the small business sector as one which is able to deliver on 90% of the jobs our economy requires, so investment in entrepreneurs is uber important.

BizcommunityWhich CSI project has stood out most for you thus far in 2016?

One of the big ones for me has to be JP Morgan’s scholarship programme offered by GIBS Enterprise Development Academy, targeting 100 small businesses in the green economy. The timing of this initiative, in the context of the growing South African green economy, could not have been better. From the first 50 candidates Social-TV engaged with, there was such a diversity of entrepreneurs who are changing the shape of South Africa’s economy through sustainable innovations. One is a young woman entrepreneur who manufactures solar-powered bags, another a former banker who has created a mobile ice-skating rink introducing the poorer black youth to the sport, without using any water or electricity. When you see a multinational investment banking firm who understands the power and value of green economy entrepreneurs, the future looks bright.

#InnovationMonth: Social-TV spotlights stories that inspire hope

After 20 years of experience in the local PR & communications arena, Diane Naidoo-Ngcese launched GreenOvation, a publication focused on sustainability, innovation and social enterprise. She’s a touch obsessed about clean energy and innovating food and water solutions for Africa. Naidoo-Ngcese is also a self-confessed stalker of all start-up, entrepreneurship, innovation and climate change events where she finds herself tweeting compulsively. She is the editor of GreenOvation, MD of The Alchemist PR, and spokesperson for Social-TV.

Getting water wise amid SA drought

With eight of South Africa’s nine provinces declared disaster areas, the agriculture sector, as well as other water-intensive industries, are implementing clever water conservation solutions to preserve this scarce resource. Among these solutions are the lining of dams and reservoirs to cut water losses from seepage into the soil, as well as covering water bodies to reduce losses from evaporation. Rhino Water is increasingly getting requests for this solution.
Getting water wise amid SA droughtThe latest weekly report released by the national Department of Water and Sanitation indicates that the country’s dams and reservoirs are currently operating at just over 52% capacity, compared with 74% last year. In the Eastern Cape, with dams at an average capacity of 66%, farmers are not taking the availability of water for granted.

Water storage

The Quacha Group, which operates farms in Patensie, Loerie and Addo, is one of the businesses which has asked Rhino Water for help. Chiefly a citrus producer, the group specialises in high value, intensive farming, which is built on smaller production units with higher yields. According to Quacha’s Dirk Odendaal, the group needed to streamline costs and one solution had been to invest in water storage.

“We decided on water storage for two reasons. The first was to make use of the preferential night-time electricity prices by pumping ‘cheap’ water into the dam at night and then distributing it via gravitational feed during the day.

“The second reason was to secure water during the dry period. The Gamtoos has continuous water supply through a channel system that is always filled with water. But every year this system shuts down for two weeks for routine maintenance, so having a water store will allow the group to expand its fruit mix, despite this downtime, with crops such as berries that require constant watering and feeding.”

Water availability for farming projects

Although water security was not a problem in the Gamtoos region, Odendaal said it was nevertheless important to maximise the resource in the development of individual farming projects.

He said his group’s new dam would ensure water availability should any unforeseen circumstances arise, especially given the introduction of a dam liner which would contribute to conserving the stored water by minimising seepage-related losses.

The lining

According to water solutions expert Sarel Bam, MD of Rhino Water, the company responsible for the dam liner’s installation, the lining consists of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), which is one of the most chemically resistant materials available. “It has high tensile strength with good impact, tear and puncture resistance and very good environmental stress cracking resistance,” said Bam, adding that the dam liners also had a variety of other applications for farmers and could be used to line sludge ponds for piggeries, dairies, and abattoirs.

“Basically, anywhere where organic or industrial waste threatens to leach into the soil and contaminate the groundwater.”

Aside from its agricultural uses, Bam said HDPE was the preferred choice for lining landfills and the insulation of chemical plants, roads, and petrol stations, as well as in mining operations.

Other water saving solutions included woven geomembranes that act as a protective cushion for liners in rocky soil, and floatation covers which prevent the growth of algae and water loss through evaporation, he said.

How To Clean And Disinfect Wooden Toys

A lot of parents have been asking for information on the best way to clean wooden toys. Children can be rough with their toys no matter what material they’re made of and it’s always a good idea to periodically clean your child’s toys. Whether they play with them outside or indoors those toys will inevitably get dirty and it’s important for you to know the right way to disinfect and clean wooden toys since wood is a porous material.

Children are full of curiosity and very young children will frequently pick a toy up from the ground and place it right in their mouth. And usually when they do this they were also just playing with the dog or digging in the dirt which means that not only is the toy dirty but their hands are too. This behavior is only natural. It’s your child’s way of exploring and it’s not something you can easily discourage. But if you want to protect your child from germs and grime you’ll need to know the proper way to clean wooden toys because you have to handle them a little differently than you do metal or plastic toys.

To begin with, when you clean wooden toys it’s important to understand that there’s a difference between finished wood and unfinished wood. Finished wood will be either painted, varnished or dyed and unfinished wood is just that – it’s just plain wood with no protective or decorative coating. Fortunately, both types of wooden toys are easy to clean and disinfect.

For basic or light cleaning you can simply wipe either finish with a dry cloth. If necessary, use a damp sponge to remove dust and dirt from unfinished wood toys and finished toys should wiped gently with a mild soap and water. For tougher dirt or grime try using an alcohol soaked cotton ball and then wipe with a dry cloth.

Whether the toy is made of finished or unfinished wood you should never soak it directly in water as the wood could soak up the water and become warped. And after you wipe the toy with water you should dry it with a soft cloth and all the toy to completely dry before it’s used again.

And never be tempted to clean wooden toys with furniture polish! It might seem like the most natural thing in the world to do since you clean your wooden furniture with it, but furniture polish contains toxins that are not meant to be ingested. The porous wood will hold the polish and when your child puts that toy in his or her mouth, or gets that polish on their hands, those toxins can be transferred to their mouth.

To disinfect wooden toys use a solution of vinegar and water or a solution of 10 parts water to one part bleach. However, if you use bleach always rinse and dry the toys very well. Wooden toys are extremely durable and can last for years if properly taken care of. Just remember to disinfect and clean your wooden toys frequently since you know they’re going to end up in your child’s mouth.

What Is The Water Hardness In My Area?

Hard water is caused by calcium and magnesium compounds; rain water is naturally soft as it has had no chance to pick up any minerals from the ground. When water passes through the ground through soft rocks like chalk or limestone, it picks up these minerals. If the water passes through rocks such as granite or through peaty soil calcium and magnesium are picked up and so the water remains soft.

Hard water can create 2 main issues within a building:

Issues Relating to Scale
Heat causes the calcium and magnesium to precipitate out of the water and stick to things causing “scale” to form on the inside of pipes, water boilers, tea kettles and so on. The scale doesn’t conduct heat well and reduces the flow through the pipes which can ultimately become completely blocked potentially leading to expensive repair bills.

Reducing the Effectiveness of Soap
Hard Water reacts with soap to form a scum and (in extreme cases) reduces soap’s ability to lather, this impacts on cleaning throughout the house including washing, bathing and general cleaning.

Hard and Soft Water Regions in the UK

The list below is a good indication of the general hard and soft water areas in the UK although it is an indicator only as all areas can contain pockets of completely different water types. To find out more you can contact your local water company (see list at base of article).

Regions with soft to moderately soft water in England






Isle of Anglesey


North West Yorkshire


West Yorkshire

Regions with soft to slightly hard water in England






Regions with slightly hard to moderately hard water in England












Regions with slightly hard to very hard water in England

North Yorkshire


South Yorkshire



Regions with hard to very hard water in England






East Riding of Yorkshire

East Riding of Yorkshire

East Sussex



Greater London




Isle of White





North East Yorkshire








Most regions in Scotland range from soft through to various levels of hardness with the majority not exceeding moderately soft water.

Ireland Regions

Ireland maybe broken down as follows:

Northern Division soft to moderately soft

Eastern Division soft to moderately hard

Southern Division soft to moderately hard

Western Division soft to moderately hard

Local UK Water Companies

Anglian Water Services Ltd

Phone: +44 (0)1480 323 000


Dwr Cymru Cyfyngedig (Welsh Water)

Phone: +44(0)1443 452 300


Independent Water Networks Ltd

Phone: +44 (0)845 051 1650

Northumbrian Water Ltd

Phone: +44(0)8706 084820


Severn Trent Water Ltd

Phone: +44(0)121 722 4000


South West Water Ltd

Phone: +44(0)1392 446 688


Southern Electric

Phone: +44 (0)118 958 0100


Southern Water Services Ltd

Phone: +44(0)1903 264 444


Thames Water Utilities Ltd

Phone: 0845 9200 888


United Utilities Water Plc

Phone: +44(0)1925 237 000


Wessex Water Services Ltd

Phone: +44(0)1225 526 000


Yorkshire Water Services Ltd

Phone: +44(0)1274 691 111


Albion Water Ltd

Phone: +44(0)20 8977 3055


Bournemouth & West Hampshire Water Plc

Phone: +44(0)1202 591 111


Bristol Water Plc

Phone: +44(0)117 966 5881


Cambridge Water Company Plc

Phone: +44(0) 1223 403 000


Cholderton & District Water Company Ltd

Phone: +44(0)1980 629 203


Dee Valley Water Plc

Phone: +44(0)1978 846 946


Essex & Suffolk Water (now part of Northumbrian Water Ltd)

Phone: +4 (0)1245 491 234


Folkestone & Dover Water Services Ltd

Phone: +44(0)1303 298 800


Hartlepool Water Plc (now part of Anglian Water Services Ltd)

Phone: +44(0)1429 858 050


Mid Kent Water Plc

Phone: +44(0)1634 240 313


Portsmouth Water Plc

Phone: +44(0)23 9249 9888


South East Water Ltd

Phone: +44(0)1444 448 200


South Staffordshire Water Plc

Phone: +44(0)1922 638 282


Sutton & East Surrey Water Plc

Phone: +44(0)1737 772 000


Tendring Hundred Water Services Ltd

Phone: +44(0)1206 399 200


Three Valleys Water Plc

Phone: +44(0)1707 268 111


What can I do about hard water?

There are 2 options that are available to you depending on your needs; Products called water softeners will improve the efficiency and increase the life of hot water appliances throughout a building. If installing a water softener is too difficult or costly then you could consider protecting specific devices that are plumbed into the mains with a scale inhibiting filter. The types of devises that may be protected in this way include mains water coolers and all types of water boilers and heaters. These filters are installed inline between the mains pipes and the machine itself and contain scale inhibiting elements.

About Water Softeners

A Water Softener is a device that monitors and reduces the hardness of the water, it does this by removing the calcium and magnesium salts from a water supply and replacing them with a saline solution. All water softeners work in essentially the same way, the incoming water enters the softener and passes through ion exchange resin. The resin removes the magnesium and calcium ions that create lime scale by swapping them with a small amount of salt, this leaves the softened water to enter your water system. The machines often contain an automatic timer control which will periodically clean or regenerate the resin. This is done by passing salt water through the resin which swaps places with the stored magnesium and calcium ions and allows the trapped minerals to be flushed down the drain.

If you are considering this option then please be aware:

When installing your Water Softener the UK Water Bylaws require that one tap in the house is left unsoftened. This may be accomplished by installing a third dedicated tap at the kitchen sink. In effect the whole house has softened water and the dedicated tap provides hard water for drinking, cooking etc. It’s also recommended that any outside taps are fed with unsoftened water to avoid waste.

There is evidence of less heart disease in hard water areas than in soft water areas

Most water softeners work by replacing the hardness with sodium which can cause issues with babies and those with heart conditions

Some water supplies contain impurities that may affect your softener if left untreated. Iron, dirt, silt, organics and bio film may not be removed by the salt regeneration system and older resin beds may start to suffer from iron fouling.

Soft water can release lead from any lead pipes

Once the scale is removed it can open up old leaks that have been sealed by the historic scale build-up

Softeners require ongoing maintenance and need to be topped up with the correct type of salt

You purchase the system from a reputable supplier